Four Corner States Percent of Public School Students Eligible for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch Hot Spot Analysis, by County (2004, 2018-2019)

Dublin Core

Title

Four Corner States Percent of Public School Students Eligible for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch Hot Spot Analysis, by County (2004, 2018-2019)

Subject

This is a map showing the results of a hot spot analysis on the percent of public school students who were eligible to receive either free or reduced-price lunches through the National School Lunch Program in each county within the four corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah).

Description

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act is a United States federal law that created the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) after being signed into law by President Harry S. Truman in 1946.[1] The NSLP’s purpose is to provide low-cost or free school lunch meals to qualified students through subsidies to schools- a much needed program due to the fact that over 1 in 5 children in the United States were living in food-insecure households in 2010.[2,3] To qualify for free meals at school, low-income children must live in households with incomes below 130 percent of the poverty level or with those receiving SNAP or TANF. Children with family incomes between 130 and 185 percent of the poverty line qualify for reduced-price meals.[3]

This map illustrates hot and cold spots within the four corner states, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah, at the county level resulting from a hot spot analysis. A hot spot analysis is a type of spatial analysis and mapping technique that shows, in this case, what areas, counties, have a have statistically significant higher or lower percent of students who were eligible to receive either free or reduced-price lunches compared to the percent that would be expected if the data was completely random.

This map identifies hot and cold spots at varying confidence levels: 99 percent, 95 percent, and 90 percent confidence. A total of 59 counties in the four corner states were found to have a statistically significant hot or cold spot (p-value= <0.05). The depicted cold spots indicate counties where there is a statistically significant lower percent of students who were eligible to receive either free or reduced-price lunches. Simply put, these counties in shades of blue indicate areas where there is a lower rate of students eligible to participate in the free or reduced-price lunch program. The depicted hot spots indicate counties where there is a statistically significant higher percent or rate of students who were eligible to receive either free or reduced-price lunches. These areas in shades of purple show what counties have a higher percent of students who were eligible to participate in the free or reduced-price lunch program compared to what one could expect to observe if the data was random.

One large limitation was the lack of current data indicating participation, eligibility, or utilizations rates in Arizona at the county level. Furthermore, Arizona county boundaries rarely match up with county boundaries which limits the feasibility and accuracy of using the more current data available at the school district or individual school level. Due to this, Arizona state data utilized in this map is from 2007- the most current year with county level eligibility data reported by the state. Another large limiting factor in the data were the lack of utilization, participation, utilization, etc. data relating to free or reduced-price lunch at levels smaller than the state level.

Creator

Maggie Plessinger

Source

[1] Hynd E. National School Lunch Act. The Congress Project. Published December 1, 2016. Accessed December 15, 2020. https://www.thecongressproject.com/national-school-lunch-act-1946

[2] Glavin C. National School Lunch Act. K12 Academics. Published October 19, 2016. Accessed December 15, 2020. https://www.k12academics.com/Federal%20Education%20Legislation/national-school-lunch-act

[3] Feeding America. National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Feedingamerica.org. Published 2020. https://www.feedingamerica.org/take-action/advocate/federal-hunger-relief-programs/national-school-lunch-program

County Subdivisions: TIGER/Line Shapefiles from the US Census Bureau, at census.gov, downloaded in December 2020, data from 141 counties

Free or Reduced Lunch Eligibility Data [Colorado, New Mexico, Utah]: Student eligibility data downloaded from the Elementary/Secondary Information System on the National Center for Education Statistics website, downloaded in December 2020, data from 124 counties

Free or Reduced Lunch Data [Arizona]: Percent students approved data downloaded from the KIDSCOUNT data center website, downloaded in December 2020, data from 15 counties

Publisher

Website maintained by Chantel Sloan, Associate Professor in the Public Health Department at Brigham Young University.

Date

County subdivision boundaries data from 2018. Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah Free or Reduced-price Lunch data from 2017-2018. Arizona Free or Reduced-price Lunch data from 2007.

Contributor

Maggie Plessinger

Rights

Free or Reduced Lunch Eligibility Data [Colorado, New Mexico, Utah]: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey'', 2017-18 v.1a, 2018-19 v.1a; "Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey Geographic Data (EDGE)", 2017-18 v.1a, 2018-19 v.1a.

Free or Reduced Lunch Eligibility Data [Arizona]: The Annie E. Casey Foundation, KIDS COUNT Data Center, https://datacenter.kidscount.org.

ArcGIS Pro: (Version 2.6.1) Esri Inc.https://www.esri.com/en-us/arcgis/products/arcgis-pro/

Relation

N/A

Format

PDF

Language

English

Coverage

Four Corners region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) subdivided by county. The map scale is 1:6,914,547.

Still Image Item Type Metadata

Original Format

Map file generated using ArcGIS Pro 2.6.1

Files

(6) Free Reduced Lunch Hot Spot Analysis Map.pdf

Reference

Four Corner States Percent of Public School Students Eligible for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch Hot Spot Analysis, by County (2004, 2018-2019), Maggie Plessinger, Website maintained by Chantel Sloan, Associate Professor in the Public Health Department at Brigham Young University., County subdivision boundaries data from 2018. Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah Free or Reduced-price Lunch data from 2017-2018. Arizona Free or Reduced-price Lunch data from 2007.